# How To Calculate The Carrying Value Of A Bond

Callable bonds are subject to retirement at a stated dollar amount prior to maturity at the option of the issuer. The conversion often gives bondholders an opportunity to benefit if the market price of the common stock increases substantially. Unsecured bonds are issued against the general credit of the borrower.

• They have built up large balances of cash and cash equivalents to avoid a cash crisis.
• A bond payable account is credited in the books of accounts with the corresponding debit to the cash account on the issue date.
• Because interest rates continually fluctuate–even on a daily basis, bonds are seldom sold at their face values.
• See Table 3 for interest expense and carrying value calculations over the life of the bond using the straight‐line method of amortization .
• Instead, they sell at a premium or at a discount to par value, depending on the difference between current interest rates and the stated interest rate for the bond on the issue date.

The loss of \$2,600 is the difference between the cash paid of \$103,000 and the carrying value, \$100,400. A company should retire debt early only if it has sufficient cash resources. Amortization of the discount increasesthe amount of interest expense reported each period. Bonds, like common stock, are sold in small denominations (usually \$1,000 or multiples of \$1,000). Current maturities of long-term debt – The current portion of a long-term debt should be included in Current Liabilities. Payroll and payroll taxes payable – Every employer incurs liabilities relating to employees’ salaries and wages.

## Recording The Bond Sale

The investors view the firm as with considerable risk and are willing to purchase the bond only if it offers a higher yield of 10%. To calculate the carrying value, one must first determine the bond’s par value, its interest rate, and its time to maturity.

Appendix 10D at the end of this chapter discusses the criteria used to determine the accounting treatment for contingent liabilities and leases. Summary data regarding debts may be presented in the balance sheet with detailed data shown in a supporting schedule in the notes. Eliminate the carrying value of the bonds at the redemption date, record the cash paid, and recognize the gain or loss on redemption.

## A Bonds Book Value Is Determined By Several Factors

The entry to record the issuance of the bonds increases cash for the \$11,246 received, increases bonds payable for the \$10,000 maturity amount, and increases premium on bonds payable for \$1,246. Premium on bonds payable is a contra account to bonds payable that increases its value and is added to bonds payable in the long‐term liability section of the balance sheet. The entry to record the issuance of the bonds increases cash for the \$9,377 received, increases discount on bonds payable for \$623, and increases bonds payable for the \$10,000 maturity amount. Discount on bonds payable is a contra account to bonds payable that decreases the value of the bonds and is subtracted from the bonds payable in the long‐term liability section of the balance sheet.

### Why are bonds sold at a discount or premium?

So, when interest rates fall, bond prices rise as investors rush to buy older higher-yielding bonds and as a result, those bonds can sell at a premium. Conversely, as interest rates rise, new bonds coming on the market are issued at the new, higher rates pushing those bond yields up. … So, those bonds sell at a discount.

In most cases, it is the investor’s decision to convert the bonds to stock, although certain types of convertible bonds allow the issuing company to determine if and when bonds are converted. Carrying ValueCarrying value is the book value of assets in a company’s balance sheet, computed as the original cost less accumulated depreciation/impairments. It is calculated for intangible assets as the actual cost less amortization expense/impairments. For simplicity, let’s assume a firm issue 3 year bond with a face value of \$100,000 has an annual coupon rate of 8%.

## Discount Rate

Rather, they sell at a premium or discount to par value, depending on the difference between current interest rates and the stated interest rate for the bond on the issue date. The redemption amount generally equals how much the original investor paid to acquire the bond. However, the redemption amount can be different than the acquisition cost. The different types of current liabilities include notes payable, accounts payable, unearned revenues, and accrued liabilities such as taxes, salaries and wages, and interest. The interest expense is amortized over the twenty periods during which interest is paid. A zero-coupon bond is one that does not make ongoing interest payment to the bondholder over the term of the bond. When calculating the present value of a bond, use the market rate as the discount rate. The loss is recorded by increasing a loss account and increasing a liability account. Thus, the carrying value of the bonds at maturity will be equal to the face value of the bonds. One example of this practice is leasing assets without showing the assets or related debt on the balance sheet.

## Accountingtools

When a bond is issued at par value it is sold for the face value amount. This generally means that the bond’s market and contract rates are equal to each other, meaning that there is no bond premium or discount. A bond’s coupon is the interest rate that the business must pay on the bond’s face value. These interest payments are generally paid periodically during the bond’s term, although some bonds pay all the interest it owes at the end of the period. While the coupon rate is generally a fixed amount, it can also be “indexed.

Each of these transactions must be recorded in the company’s financial records with a series of journal entries. Generally, the person who holds the actual bond document is the one with the right to receive payment. This allows people who originally acquire a bond to sell it on the open market for an immediate payout, as opposed to waiting for the issuing entity to pay the debt back. Note that the trading value of a bond can vary from its face value depending on differences between the coupon and market interest rates. Bonds PayableBonds payable are the company’s long-term debt with the promise to pay the interest due and principal at the specified time as decided between the parties.

## Issuing Bonds At A Discount

The carrying value is the face value of the bonds less unamortized bond discount or plus unamortized bond premium at the redemption date. The contractual interest rate, often referred to as the stated rate, is the rate used to determine the amount of cash interest the borrower pays and the investor receives.

The carrying value of a bond refers to the net amount between the bond’s face value plus any un-amortized premiums or minus any amortized discounts. The carrying value is also commonly referred to as the carrying amount or the book value of the bond. You decide to exchange a note for the equipment your business needs. On January 1, 2015 you issue a note of \$10,000 with an interest rate of 10%. Derive the amortization amount by calculating the difference between the bond interest expense and the bond interest paid. Multiply the carrying value of the bond at the beginning of the period by the effective-interest rate to calculate the bond interest expense.

Calculating the carrying value of the bond, after gathering the aforementioned information, involves a simple arithmetic step of either addition or subtraction. The un-amortized portion of the bond’s discount or premium is either subtracted from or added to the bond’s face value to arrive at carrying value. Date Account Debit Credit Explanation Jan. 1, 2015 Equipment \$10,000 Record value of equipment purchased. You can either purchase the equipment by issuing a bond in exchange for cash or, alternatively, by issuing a note to the seller . Michael R. Lewis is a retired corporate executive, entrepreneur, and investment advisor in Texas. He has over 40 years of experience in business and finance, including as a Vice President for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas. For the second interest period, bond interest expense will be \$11,271 (\$93,925 x 12%) and the discount amortization will be \$1,271. The bonds sell for \$92,790 (92.79%) of face value), which results in bond discount of \$7,210 (\$100,000 – \$92,790) and an effective-interest rate of 12%. To illustrate, assume that Wrightway Corporation issues \$100,000 of 10%, 5-year bonds on January 1, 2004, with interest payable each January 1. This percentage, referred to as the effective-interest rate, is established when the bonds are issued and remains constant in each interest period. A company’s balance sheet may not fully reflect its actual obligations due to “off-balance-sheet financing”—an attempt to borrow funds in such a way that the obligations are not recorded. One measure of a company’ solvency is the debt to total assets ratio , calculated as total liabilities divided by total assets. A commonly used measure of liquidity is the current ratio , calculated as current assets divided by current liabilities.

One source of financing available to corporations is long‐term bonds. Bonds represent an obligation to repay a principal amount at a future date and pay interest, usually on a semi‐annual basis. Unlike notes payable, which normally represent an amount owed to one lender, a large number of bonds are normally issued at the same time to different lenders.

These premiums and discounts are amortized over the life of the bond, so that when the bond matures its book value will equal its face value. Understand the effective-interest method of amortization for discount and premium bonds. The effective interest rate is the percentage of carrying value over the life of the bond. It is established when the bond is issued and remains constant in each period. For this method, the interest expenses recorded equals the constant percentage of the carrying value of the bond. Most premiums or discounts will be amortized on a straight-line basis, meaning the same amount is amortized each reporting period.

## What Is The Carrying Value Of Bond?

It is important when completing the zero-coupon bond calculation to ensure the time period and term of the bond are expressed in similar terms. If the interest rate of the bond is expressed as a monthly rate and the term of the bond is 10 years, the bond term should be expressed as 120 months when making the calculation. The type of lease described above is called a capital lease because the fair value of the leased asset is capitalized by the lessee by recording it on its balance sheet. In most lease contracts, a periodic payment is made by the lessee and is recorded as rent expense. As an example, assume that Wrightway Corporation issues \$100,000, 10%, 5-year bonds on January 1, with interest payable on January 1.

• The discount amortized for the last payment may be slightly different based on rounding.
• These instruments may be issued at a premium, at a discount, or at face value, depending on their stated interest rates in comparison to market rates for comparably risky investments.
• The price of the bonds is based on the present value of these future cash flows.
• If instead, Lighting Process, Inc. issued its \$10,000 bonds with a coupon rate of 12% when the market rate was 10%, the purchasers would be willing to pay \$11,246.

Unlike the discount that results in additional interest expense when it is amortized, the amortization of premium decreases interest expense. The total interest expense on these bonds will be \$10,754 rather than the \$12,000 that will be paid in cash. Because interest rates continually fluctuate, bonds are rarely sold at their face values. Instead, they sell at a premium or at a discount to par value, depending on the difference between current interest rates and the stated interest rate for the bond on the issue date.

Each of the principal types of current liabilities is listed separately within the category. Assume at the end of the fourth period Candlestick, inc., having sold its bonds at a premium, retires its bonds at 103 after paying the annual interest. Of the issue price of bonds, the book value of the bonds at maturity will equal their face value. Thus, the premium is considered to be a reduction in the cost of borrowing that reduces bond interest expense over the life of the bonds. To illustrate bonds sold at a discount, assume that on January 1, 2004, Candlestick, Inc., sells \$100,000, 5-year, 10% bonds at 98 (98% of face value) with interest payable on January 1.